Introduction to Automation

Human being is a characteristics species among all living species that distinguish itself from all other living species by its ability to magnify and extend its own capabilities. Earlier, the human being has been described as a tool utilizing other animals for carrying out the work generally ascribed by him for himself. The capabilities of man along with his desire for knowledge and improvement leads to the development of a device called “A machine”. A machine, as per one of the definitions given in ‘Oxford English Dictionary’ is “An apparatus for applying mechanical power consisting of a number of interrelated parts, each having a definite function.” The evolution of machine is attributed to the propagating power of machine which is inherited from its ancestor machines. Existing machine tool makes the pathway for the manufacturing of more advanced machine tools which successively serves to accelerate the evolution of new machine tools.

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The Protective Effect of Linseed Oil Against Carbendazim Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Absract
Carbendazim (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate), a metabolite of benomyl, is one of the most widespread environmental contaminants of major concern to human and animal reproductive health. The present investigation was undertaken to study the possible protective effect of linseed oil on carbendazim induced testicular toxicity. Adult albino male rats of the Sprague Dawley strain were administered with carbendazim (100 mg/(kg /day orally) . The control animals received vehicle (corn oil) alone. Also, four other groups of rats were treated by vitamin E (Vit E) (200mg/kg /day orally), carbendazim + Vit E, linseed oil (1.5 g/kg/day, orally), or carbendazim + linseed oil. All the treatments were continued for 48 days. After the treatment period, animals were euthanized, blood samples were taken, prostate and seminal vesicles were removed and weighed. Testes were also quickly removed, encapsulated and utilized for the estimation of the following parameters: sperm count, motility, viability, and abnormalities. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase anti oxidant biomarkers activities were estimated in the testes homogenate. Activities of testicular acetylcholine esterase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes as well as serum testosterone levels were also determined.

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History of Aerogol

Aerogel is one of the most fascinating solids ever known to man. It was first discovered in the late 1930s be Steven Kistler, and later improved on by many different scientist. As the worlds lightest solid it has many different properties engineers try to take advantage of by mixing it with various elements, and seeing if they get the results they need. One of the key aspects of Aerogel is its thermal properties which is good for insulation usage.

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Globalization through Technology

The term Globalization has been quite influencive in many sectors, particularly in job sector. Globalization is a difficult phenomenon to explain properly. Science and technology has quite importance in every aspect of life, but particularly the way in which technology is globally integrating the peoples of the world. The word globalization can be heard quite oftenly in political and economic dialogue. This term has brought new opportunities. The life span for the technical skills is getting shorter and shorter, when it comes to the knowledge based society. And for that purpose, the technical professionals should be up to date as far as globalization trends are concern. education is rapidly evolving as the pace of technological innovation in society accelerates. It is because excellent technical skills are required by complex and innovative global environment. For global market, knowledge and teamwork skills are essentials.

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Genetic Engineering and Food

The world population has topped to 6 billion people and is predicted to double in the next 50 years. Ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is and will continue to be a major challenge in the years to come. Genetically Engineered foods promise to meet the difficult task of providing an adequate food supply and aid in the prevention of starvation. Biotech crops posses the following traits that prove them to be superior to conventional crops; pest resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and drought tolerance. Genetically Engineered foods will produce faster, healthier, and economically efficient crops.

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Optimisation of Aerospace Fabrics

1.Safety systems are necessary for all military aircraft which are designed to operate on the fringes of safety envelope and are inherently vulnerable to internal or externally induced failures. The safety systems while ensuring safety of the aircraft and/ or aircrew, do not directly contribute towards operational capability of the aircraft. Their addition into the aircraft thus imposes a weight penalty and it is a challenging task for the designer to minimize their weights. It is in the use of fabrics for safety systems that the Russian and western design approaches converge. Fabrics are now universally and extensively used in the design of safety systems of military aircraft due to their light weight and a host of other favorable properties. Important examples are parachutes, dinghies, life jackets, survival packs, arrester barrier nets etc.

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Solare Energy Through Relays

INTRODUCTION:
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The total solar energy absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth’s non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined. Solar energy’s uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels which are oriented in a specific direction.

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Consumer vs Ewaste

CONSUMER VS E-WASTE :
WHO’S GOING TO RUN THE SHOW

This paper has been jointly authored by S SURESH KUMAR, a post graduate in computer science, and a research scholar employed with GoI alongwith Dr SP VICTOR Head of Department & Director of Research Centre at St Xaviers College , Palayamkottai Tirunelveli both of whom instill great concern for nature.

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Orbital Space Debris

Orbital Space Debris

The sun rose blindingly over the crest of the earth. The astronaut moved outside the Space Shuttle Discovery’s cargo bay in his Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). Held by the shuttle’s robotic arm, a damaged satellite hung about 800 kilometers above the earth and a few meters below the astronaut. As the space walker hovered closer to the satellite, he looked down to see clouds covering parts of America, including his home state of Nebraska. The satellite was damaged badly. Sporting only one solar panel, it had a broken metal arm that made merely a stub on the other side. The day earlier, they had intercepted the missing solar panel, burned and smashed beyond repair. Upon inspection of the damages, both in space and back on earth where the satellite was taken, it was confirmed that a small piece of foreign space debris was responsible for knocking out this civilian communications satellite. While in the vastness of space, an accident like this seems only realistic in a Hollywood movie, but this fictional description is more real than what people realize. It has been fifty years since the launch of the first satellite, Russia’s Sputnik. Since then, as is the case with rapidly advancing technology, satellites have only proliferated and become more entrenched in society’s existence. This has created an incredible amount of crowding in the earth’s orbit that will only get worse as time progresses.

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